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Weekly Summary -- March 1, 2019

Friday, Mar. 1, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Here are what Pharmacist's Briefing editors consider the most important developments for the week of March 1, 2019

Coping With Diabetes Is a Family Affair

FRIDAY, March 1, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- When Giuseppina Miller's 8-year-old son, Peter, was first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, he necessarily got a lot of his parents' attention.

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California Parents Are Getting Around Vaccine Law, Fueling Measles Outbreaks

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Even though California enacted tough legislation in 2016 barring "personal belief" exemptions for childhood vaccinations, some parents may be turning to unethical physicians to circumvent the new law.

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Medical Pot: An Elixir for the Elderly?

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Your grandparents' chronic aches and pains might best be eased with a little weed, a new study suggests.

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Seniors With UTIs Need Antibiotics ASAP, Study Says

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- For older adults with a urinary tract infection (UTI), antibiotic treatment should begin immediately to prevent serious complications, a new British study finds.

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Colon Cancer Usually Diagnosed Late in Under-50 Adults

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Young adults are increasingly developing colon cancer -- and it's often diagnosed at a late stage, after they've seen several doctors and been misdiagnosed, a new survey shows.

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Meds for Blood Pressure, Cholesterol Help the Heart -- But Maybe Not the Mind

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- While effective at cutting heart risks, blood pressure and cholesterol drugs may not help preserve seniors' brain health, new research finds.

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Can Google Help Bridge Language Gaps Between Doctors, Patients?

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Google Translate might be a valuable ally for doctors when they're treating patients who don't speak English, new research suggests.

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Single Dose of Keytruda May Help Put Melanoma Into Remission

TUESDAY, Feb. 26, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- For people with the deadly skin cancer melanoma, one dose of the drug Keytruda before surgery might stop the cancer in its tracks, according to a groundbreaking new study.

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Smokers May Fare Worse Against the Deadliest Skin Cancer

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Melanoma patients who are recent and current smokers have lower survival rates than nonsmokers, suggesting that smoking may weaken immune response to the most deadly skin cancer, researchers say.

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Is At-Home Stool Test a Viable Alternative to Colonoscopy?

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Simple at-home stool tests are a reliable way to screen for colon cancer -- and a good alternative to invasive colonoscopies, a new research review confirms.

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Don't Be Fooled: Thermography No Substitute for Mammograms, FDA Says

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Women should not be misled into thinking that thermography is an effective alternative to mammography for breast cancer screening, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned.

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Too Often, Opioid Abuse Runs in the Family, Study Shows

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- When parents abuse prescription painkillers, their teenagers may follow their example, a new study finds.

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Dietary Monitoring Key to Successful Weight Loss

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- The frequency of dietary self-monitoring is significantly associated with weight loss, according to a study published online Feb. 25 in Obesity.

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Flu Vaccination During Pregnancy Does Not Cause Miscarriage

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- An influenza vaccine cannot cause a pregnant woman to miscarry, researchers say.

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AAAAI: Small Amounts of Dietary Peanuts Beneficial After Immunotherapy

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Most individuals who complete peanut immunotherapy trials continue peanut consumption with few reports of reactions, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, held from Feb. 22 to 25 in San Francisco.

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Risk Factors ID'd for Site Infection After Orthopedic Surgery in Seniors

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Five risk factors are independently associated with surgical site infection among geriatric patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, according to a study published online Feb. 20 in the International Wound Journal.

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Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer May Often Be Misdiagnosed

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Many patients with young-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), diagnosed at age 20 to 49 years, are initially misdiagnosed, according to research to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, to be held from March 29 to April 3 in Atlanta.

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CDC: Progress in HIV Prevention Has Stalled in the United States

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- The battle against new HIV infections has lost some steam in recent years, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Decline Observed in HPV Type 16/18 Cervical Precancers in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- The proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 to 3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) declined from 2008 to 2014, according to a study published online Feb. 21 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Adjuvant Tx for Early Testicular Cancer Does Not Harm Sperm

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- For clinical stage I testicular cancer (TC) patients, adjuvant treatment after orchiectomy has no long-term significant effect on sperm production, according to a study published online Feb. 25 in the Annals of Oncology.

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Rate of Opioid Rx Stable After Pediatric Outpatient Surgery

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- From 2013 to 2017, the rate of receiving a take-home opioid prescription remained stable after pediatric outpatient surgery as did the dose prescribed, but the maximum take-home dose declined, according to a study recently published in Pain Medicine.

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Lowering BP, Lipids in Healthy Elderly Has No Cognitive Effect

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide, rosuvastatin, or their combination do not impact cognitive decline among older people, according to a study published online Feb. 27 in Neurology.

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Ultrasound of Calcaneus Efficient for Screening Bone Health

TUESDAY, Feb. 26, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Ultrasonography (US) of the calcaneus is efficient for screening bone health, according to a study published in the March issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

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Glaucoma Burden Increasing Globally but Not Equally

TUESDAY, Feb. 26, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- The health burden of glaucoma increased globally in the past 25 years and is distributed unequally, according to a study published online Feb. 20 in Acta Ophthalmologica.

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Nonmedical Rx Opioid Use in Teens Linked to Parental Use

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use in adolescents is associated with parental NMPO use and with smoking and parent-adolescent conflict, according to a study published online Feb. 25 in Pediatrics.

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Serious Medical Outcomes Reported With Kratom Exposure

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa, exposure is associated with serious medical outcomes, especially as part of multiple-substance exposure, according to a study published online Feb. 20 in Clinical Toxicology.

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AAAAI: Exclusive Breastfeeding Not Linked to Eczema Risk

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Exclusive breastfeeding is not associated with the odds of general eczema diagnosis, but exclusive breastfeeding for three months or longer is associated with reduced odds of continued eczema at age 6, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, held from Feb. 22 to 25 in San Francisco.

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ATS Issues Practice Guideline for Pediatric Home Oxygen Therapy

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Recommendations have been developed for home oxygen therapy in children with chronic respiratory conditions; the clinical practice guideline from the American Thoracic Society was published in the Feb. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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FDA: Pulmonary Embolism Risk Up With Tofacitinib 10 mg for RA

THURSDAY, Feb. 28, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- A safety clinical trial has revealed that tofacitinib (Xeljanz, Xeljanz XR) 10 mg twice daily is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary embolism (PE) and death among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned in a safety alert this week.

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Antenatal Corticosteroid Tx Tied to Reduction in Birth Size

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) is associated with reductions in birth size for infants, according to a study published online Feb. 26 in PLOS Medicine.

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Achievement of Targets in T2DM Varies by Season

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- There is seasonal variation in achievement of the guideline targets for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a study published online Feb. 22 in Diabetes Care.

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Sustained Smoking Cessation May Delay, Prevent Seropositive RA

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- While smoking is a strong risk factor for seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), sustained smoking cessation could delay or even prevent disease development, according to a study published online Feb. 21 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Tumor Control Durable With Pembrolizumab in Merkel Cell Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- For patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma (aMCC), pembrolizumab is associated with durable tumor control and favorable overall survival, according to a study published online Feb. 7 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Prenatal Vitamin Intake in Early Pregnancy May Cut Autism Risk

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Maternal prenatal vitamin intake during the first month of pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in siblings of children with ASD, according to a study published online Feb. 27 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Sertraline Tops CBT for Reducing Depression in Dialysis Patients

TUESDAY, Feb. 26, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- For patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, an engagement interview on treatment acceptance has no effect on acceptance of depression treatment, and depression scores are modestly better with sertraline treatment versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) after 12 weeks of treatment, according to a study published online Feb. 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Prognostic Bleeding Risk Models Developed for Aspirin Use

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Prognostic bleeding risk models that can estimate the absolute bleeding harms of aspirin have been developed for individuals in whom aspirin is being considered for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online Feb. 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Stewardship Programs Decrease Inpatient Fluoroquinolone Rx

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 27, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Fluoroquinolone stewardship interventions at hospitals are associated with less fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization but not at discharge, according to a study published online Feb. 13 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Converting Naloxone to OTC Expected to Increase Sales

TUESDAY, Feb. 26, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- The demand for naloxone is relatively inelastic with respect to changes in its out-of-pocket price, and conversion to an over-the-counter medication is expected to increase naloxone pharmacy sales, according to a study published online Feb. 20 in Health Services Research.

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Opioid-Related Mortality Up From 1999 to 2016 in Eastern U.S.

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- In the eastern United States, opioid-related mortality, particularly mortality associated with synthetic opioids, has increased, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in JAMA Network Open.

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Knowledge of Transgender Health Care Not Linked to Education

MONDAY, Feb. 25, 2019 (Pharmacist's Briefing) -- Transphobia -- not formal or informal education -- predicts provider knowledge of transgender health care, according to a study recently published in Medical Education.

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